Yu Xia, Xiuqin Li* and Wei Sun Pages 127 - 141 ( 15 )
Suppression of TP53 function is nearly ubiquitous in human cancers, and a significant fraction of cancers have mutations in the TP53 gene itself. Therefore, the wild-type TP53 gene has become an important target gene for transformation research of cancer gene therapy. In 2003, the first anti-tumor gene therapy drug rAd-p53 (recombinant human p53 adenovirus), trade name Gendicine™, was approved by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in combination with radiotherapy. The recombinant human TP53 gene is delivered into cancer cells by an adenovirus vector constructed to express the functional p53 protein. Although the only currently approved used of Gendicine is in combination with radiotherapy for treatment of HNSCC, clinical studies have been carried out for more than 20 other applications of Gendicine in treating cancer, including treatment of advanced lung cancer, advanced liver cancer, malignant gynecological tumors, and soft tissue sarcomas. Currently more than 30,000 patients have been treated with Gendicine. This review provides an overview of the clinical applications of Gendicine in China. We summarize a total of 48 studies with 2,561 patients with solid tumors, including 34 controlled clinical studies and 14 open clinical studies, i.e., clinical studies without a control group. There are 11 studies for head and neck cancer, 10 for liver cancer, 6 for malignant gynecological tumors, 4 for non-small cell lung cancer, 4 for soft tissue sarcoma, 4 for malignant effusion, 2 for gastrointestinal tumors, and 7 for other types of cancer. In all the reported clinical studies, the most common side effect was self-limited fever. Intratumoral injection and intra-arterial infusion were the most common routes of administration. Overall, Gendicine combined with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or other conventional treatment regimens demonstrated significantly higher response rates compared to standard therapies alone. Some of the published studies also showed that Gendicine combination regimens demonstrated longer progression-free survival times than conventional treatments alone. To date, Gendicine has been clinically used in China for treatment of cancers other than HNSCC for more than ten years, mainly for patients with advanced or unresectable malignant tumors. However, the establishment of standard treatment regimens using TP53 gene therapy is still needed in order to advance its use in clinical practice.
TP53, gendicine, recombinant adenovirus p53, China, gene therapy, clinical practice.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No. 36, Sanhao Street, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110004, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No. 36, Sanhao Street, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110004, Radiology Department, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Sanhao