Hayk Davtyan, Armine Hovakimyan, Karen Zagorski, Arpine Davtyan, Irina Petrushina, David Agdashian, Vidya Murthy, David H. Cribbs, Michael G. Agadjanyan and Anahit Ghochikyan Pages 190 - 199 ( 10 )
DNA vaccines promote immune system activation in small animals and exhibit certain advantages when compared to conventional recombinant protein vaccines. However in clinical trials DNA vaccines are less effective in inducing potent immune responses due to the low delivery efficiency and expression of antigens. Currently, various delivery devices such as gene-guns, bioinjectors and electroporation systems are being used in order to increase the potency of DNA vaccines. However, the optimal delivery parameters are required and must be carefully set to obtain the highest levels of gene expression and strong immune responses in humans. The focus of this study was to optimize electroporation settings (voltage, pulse length, pulse intervals, and number of pulses), as well as the route of administration (intradermal vs. intramuscular) and dosage of the DNA epitope vaccine, AV-1959D, delivered by the BTX AgilePulseTM system. As a result, we have chosen the optimal settings for electroporation delivery using different routes of immunization with this vaccine, generating (i) robust antibody production to the B cell epitope (a small peptide, derived from β-amyloid), and (ii) strong cellular immune responses to Th epitopes (a small synthetic peptide and eleven peptides from various pathogens) incorporated into DNA vaccine platform.
AV-1959D vaccine, electroporation device, immune responses, intradermal delivery, intramuscular delivery, optimization of BTX AgilePulseTM system, plasmid immunizations.
Institute for Molecular Medicine, Huntington Beach, CA 92647, USA.