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Gene therapy for chronic traumatic brain injury: Challenges to resolve long-term consequences of brain damage

Author(s):

Vipin V. Dhote*, Prem Samundre, Aman B. Upaganlawar and Aditya Ganeshpurkar  

Abstract:


The promise of gene therapy is alluring not only for CNS disorders but also for other pathological conditions. Gene therapy employs the insertion of a healthy gene into the identified genome to replace or replenish genes responsible for pathological disorder or damage due to trauma. The last decade has seen a sea change in the understanding of vital aspects of gene therapy. Despite the complexity of traumatic brain injury (TBI), the advent of gene therapy in various neurodegenerative disorders has reinforced the ongoing efforts of alleviating TBI-related outcomes with gene therapy. The review highlights the genes modulated in response to TBI and evaluates their impact on the severity and duration of the injury. We reviewed strategies that pinpointed the most relevant gene targets to restrict debilitating events of brain trauma and utilize vector of choice to deliver the gene of interest at the appropriate site. We attempted to summarize the long-term neurobehavioral consequences of TBI due to numerous pathometabolic perturbations associated with a plethora of genes. Herein, we shed light on the basic pathological mechanisms of brain injury, genetic polymorphism in individuals susceptible to severe outcomes, modulation of gene expression due to TBI, and identification of genes for their possible use in gene therapy. The review also provided insights on the use of vectors and challenges in translations of this gene therapy to clinical practices.

Keywords:

TBI, cognitive decline, apoptosis, gene therapy, polymorphism, vectors, translation

Affiliation:

Faculty of Pharmacy, VNS Group of Institutions, Bhopal, MP, 462044, Faculty of Pharmacy, VNS Group of Institutions, Bhopal, MP, 462044, SNJB’s Shree Sureshdada Jain College of Pharmacy, Chandwad, Nasik, Maharashtra, 423101, Department of Pharmacy, Shri Ram Institute of Technology, Jabalpur, MP



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