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The Emerging Role of Stem Cells in Regenerative Dentistry

[ Vol. 20 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Paolo Capparè*, Giulia Tetè, Maria Teresa Sberna and Paola Panina-Bordignon*   Pages 259 - 268 ( 10 )

Abstract:


Progress of modern dentistry is accelerating at a spectacular speed in the scientific, technological and clinical areas. Practical examples are the advancement in the digital field, which has guaranteed an average level of prosthetic practices for all patients, as well as other scientific developments, including research on stem cell biology. Given their plasticity, defined as the ability to differentiate into specific cell lineages with a capacity of almost unlimited self-renewal and release of trophic/immunomodulatory factors, stem cells have gained significant scientific and commercial interest in the last 15 years. Stem cells that can be isolated from various tissues of the oral cavity have emerged as attractive sources for bone and dental regeneration, mainly due to their ease of accessibility. This review will present the current understanding of emerging conceptual and technological issues of the use of stem cells to treat bone and dental loss defects. In particular, we will focus on the clinical application of stem cells, either directly isolated from oral sources or in vitro reprogrammed from somatic cells (induced pluripotent stem cells). Research aimed at further unraveling stem cell plasticity will allow to identify optimal stem cell sources and characteristics, to develop novel regenerative tools in dentistry.

Keywords:

Stem cells, progenitor cells, tissue regeneration, bone, dental pulp, regenerative dentistry.

Affiliation:

Department of Dentistry, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Department of Dentistry, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Department of Dentistry, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Neuroimmunology Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan

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