Sonali Bhakta and Toshifumi Tsukahara* Pages 44 - 54 ( 11 )
Editing mutated genes is a potential way for the treatment of genetic diseases. G-to-A mutations are common in mammals and can be treated by adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing, a type of substitutional RNA editing. The molecular mechanism of A-to-I editing involves the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to an inosine base; this reaction is mediated by RNA-specific deaminases, adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs), family protein. Here, we review recent findings regarding the application of ADARs to restoring the genetic code along with different approaches involved in the process of artificial RNA editing by ADAR. We have also addressed comparative studies of various isoforms of ADARs. Therefore, we will try to provide a detailed overview of the artificial RNA editing and the role of ADAR with a focus on the enzymatic site directed A-to-I editing.
RNA editing, ADAR, mutation, MS2 system, enzyme application, genetic code restoration.
Area of Bioscience and Biotechnology, School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomicity, Ishikawa, 923-1292, Area of Bioscience and Biotechnology, School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomicity, Ishikawa, 923-1292