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CRISPR-cas System as a Genome Engineering Platform: Applications in Biomedicine and Biotechnology

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Atieh Hashemi*   Pages 115 - 124 ( 10 )

Abstract:


Genome editing mediated by Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and its associated proteins (Cas) has recently been considered to be used as efficient, rapid and site-specific tool in the modification of endogenous genes in biomedically important cell types and whole organisms. It has become a predictable and precise method of choice for genome engineering by specifying a 20-nt targeting sequence within its guide RNA. Firstly, this review aims to describe the biology of CRISPR system. Next, the applications of CRISPR–Cas9 in various ways, such as efficient generation of a wide variety of biomedically important cellular models as well as those of animals, modifying epigenomes, conducting genome-wide screens, gene therapy, labelling specific genomic loci in living cells, metabolic engineering of yeast and bacteria and endogenous gene expression regulation by an altered version of this system were reviewed.

Keywords:

CRISPR, Genome engineering, Biology, Applications, Cas9, Biomedicine, Biotechnology.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran



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