Morteza Amjadi*, Babak Mostaghaci and Metin Sitti Pages 139 - 146 ( 8 )
There is a growing interest in transdermal delivery systems because of their noninvasive, targeted, and on-demand delivery of gene and drugs. However, efficient penetration of therapeutic compounds into the skin is still challenging largely due to the impermeability of the outermost layer of the skin, known as stratum corneum. Recently, there have been major research activities to enhance the skin penetration depth of pharmacological agents. This article reviews recent advances in the development of various strategies for skin penetration enhancement. We show that approaches such as ultrasound waves, laser, and microneedle patches have successfully been employed to physically disrupt the stratum corneum structure for enhanced transdermal delivery. Rather than physical approaches, several non-physical route have also been utilized for efficient transdermal delivery across the skin barrier. Finally, we discuss some clinical applications of transdermal delivery systems for gene and drug delivery. This paper shows that transdermal delivery devices can potentially function for diverse healthcare and medical applications while further investigations are still necessary for more efficient skin penetration of gene and drugs.
Skin penetration enhancers, Transdermal delivery, Gene and drug delivery, Skin barrier.
Physical Intelligence Department, Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569, Stuttgart, Physical Intelligence Department, Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Stuttgart, 70569, Max Planck-ETH Center for Learning Systems, Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Stuttgart, 70569